Clinical and radiologic features of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma including initial presentation, local recurrence, and metastases
Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging features of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) including initial presentation, recurrence, and metastases.
Materials and Methods: In this IRB-approved retrospective study, imaging features of 13 patients with pathologically proven EMC seen from August 1995 to December 2011 were analyzed. The group included 3 women and 10 men and the mean age was 54 years (range 29-73 years). Imaging studies were evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. Location, size, and imaging features of primary tumors were recorded as well as the presence of recurrent disease and location of metastases.
Results: Among 13 patients, 3 died during the timeframe of this study. Nine patients had primary tumor in the lower extremity, and average tumor size was 9.3 cm (range 3.3-18 cm). On MRI, primary tumors were hyperintense on T2, isointense to muscle on T1, and demonstrated peripheral/septal enhancement. Three patients had local recurrence and 12 had metastatic disease, with lung involvement being the most common. Tumor density on contrast enhanced CT ranged from 8.2 to 82.9 HU. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed in 3 patients. One patient had no FDG avid disease and 2 patients had metastatic disease with SUV values of 2.8 and 7.4. The patient with intense FDG uptake demonstrated more solid appearing tumor burden and had the shortest survival.
Conclusion: EMC is a rare tumor that often occurs in the lower extremities and frequently metastasizes to the lungs. Increased tumor density and increased FDG uptake may be related to more aggressive disease.
Key Words: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma; CT; MRI; FDG-PET/CT