Survival of patients with intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma treated with superselective transarterial chemoembolization using doxorubicin-loaded DC Bead under cone-beam computed tomography control
Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate treatment response, adverse events and survival rates of patients with intermediate stage HCC treated with superselective doxorubicin-loaded DC Bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEBDOX) under cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) control.
Material and Methods: Between October 2010 and June 2012, 35 consecutive patients with intermediate stage HCC (32 male, 3 female; average age, 67.5 ± 7.8 years; 22 patients Child-Pugh class A, 8 class B, 5 without cirrhosis) were treated with DEBDOX TACE. Portal vein thrombosis was observed in 6 (17.1%) patients. DEBDOX TACE was performed by superselective catheterization of feeding vessels followed by embolisation with 100-300 µm microspheres loaded with 50-100 mg of doxorubicin. In all cases, CBCT was used during chemoembolisation. Tumor response rates were defined according to mRECIST criteria.
Results: Overall, 120 procedures were performed (mean, 3.2 per patients). We treated 97 lesions with an average diameter of 4.9 ± 1.9 cm. There were 32 minor and 2 (1.6%) major complications (one liver abscess and one cerebrovascular insult). After a mean follow-up of 27.7 ± 10.5 months, 94.3% of patients achieved objective response to treatment (42.4% complete response and 57.6% partial response). Mean time to progression was 10.9 ± 5.3 months. Mean overall survival was 33.9 months (95% CI; 28.9 – 38.9 months), with 1- and 2- year survival of 97.1% and 65.7%, respectively.
Conclusions: Superselective DEBDOX TACE performed under CBCT control is a safe and effective method with high rates of tumor response and overall survival.
Key words: hepatocellular carcinoma · chemoembolization · doxorubicin · drug eluting bead · cone-beam computed tomography