Expression of LOC285758, a potential long non-coding biomarker, is methylation-dependent and correlates with glioma malignancy grade
Introduction: Identifying the early genetic drivers can help diagnose glioma tumours in their early stages, before becoming malignant. However, there are emerging evidence that disturbance of epigenetic mechanisms also contribute to cell’s malignant transformation and cancer progression. Long non-coding RNAs are one of key epigenetic modulators of signalling pathways, since gene expression regulation is one of their canonical mechanisms. The aim of our study was the search of new gliomagenesis-specific candidate lncRNAs involved in epigenetic regulation.
Methods: We used a microarray approach to detect expression profiles of epigenetically involved lncRNAs on a set of 12 glioma samples, and selected LOC285758 for further qPCR expression validation on 157 glioma samples of different subtypes. To establish if change in expression is a consequence of epigenetic alterations we determined methylation status of lncRNA’s promoter using MS-HRM. Additionally, we used the MLPA analysis for determining the status of known glioma biomarkers and used them for association analyses.
Results: In all glioma subtypes levels of LOC285758 were significantly higher in comparison to normal brain reference RNA, and expression was inversely associated with promoter methylation. Expression substantially differs between astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma, and is elevated in higher WHO grades, which also showed loss of methylation.
Conclusions: Our study revealed that lncRNA LOC285758 changed expression in glioma is methylation-dependent and methylation correlates with WHO malignancy grade. Methylation is also distinctive between astrocytoma I-III and other glioma subtypes and may thus serve as an additional biomarker in glioma diagnosis.