Infarct-core CT perfusion parameters in predicting post-thrombolysis hemorrhagic transformation of acute ischemic stroke
Background. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is the method of choice in reperfusion treatment of patients with signs and symptoms of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) lasting less than 4.5 hours. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) of acute ischemic stroke is a serious complication of IVT and occurs in 4.5 - 68.0% of clinical cases. The aim of our study was to determine the infarct core CT perfusion parameter (CTPP) most predictive of HT.
Patients and methods. Seventy-five patients with AIS who had undergone CT perfusion (CTP) imaging and were treated with IVT were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients with and without HT after IVT were defined as cases and controls, respectively. Controls were found by matching for time from AIS symptom onset to IVT ± 0.5 h. The following CTPPs were measured: cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), relative CBF and relative CBV. Receiver operating characteristic analysis curves of significant CTPPs determined cut-off values that best predict HT.
Results. There was a significant difference between cases and controls for CBF (p = 0.004), CBV (p = 0.009), rCBF (p < 0.001) and rCBV (p = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that rCBF < 4.5% of the contralateral mean (area under the curve = 0.736) allowed prediction of HT with a sensitivity of 71.0% and specificity of 52.5%.
Conclusions. CTP imaging has a considerable role in HT prediction, assisting in selection of patients that are likely to benefit from IVT. rCBF proved to have the highest HT predictive value.