Do skeletal muscle myokines during physical activity reduce cancer risk? Possible biological mechanisms

Physical activity and cancer. Possible biological mechanisms.

  • Mihaela Jurdana University of Primorska, Faculty of Health Science Polje 42, Izola,

Abstract

Background. Recently, skeletal muscle has been identified as a highly metabolically active organ that produces and releases anti-inflammatory “myokines” in response to physical activity, which can influence other tissues and organs. Scientific evidence has shown that an increase in physical activity is associated with a decrease in the development of many cancers as physical activity may prevent the harmful effects of systemic inflammation, lowers hyperinsulinemia, reduces pro-inflammatory leptin and other obesity related cytokines and also significantly increases the anti-inflammatory adiponectin level, affects the sex hormone levels, improves the immune function and gastrointestinal microbiota composition and diversity. Moderate physical activity is important for cancer protection but the most marked improvements in the inflammatory profile are conferred with physical activity performed at higher intensities. Thus, there is a need for further investigation into the type, intensity, and duration of physical activity for the prevention of some types of cancer and the development of effective recommendations.

The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding physical activity and cancer risk. Particular attention is given to the skeletal muscle myokines and other mechanisms through which physical activity affects cancer risk.

Conclusions. There is strong evidence that physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity protects against colon and breast cancer and likely against cancers at all other sites. 

Key words: Physical activity, anti-inflammatory myokines, cancer, pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Slovenski izvleček

Skeletna mišičnina je bila pred kratkim opredeljena, kot presnovno aktiven organ, saj med telesno aktivnostjo proizvaja in sprošča protivnetne “miokine”, ki vplivajo na druga tkiva in organe. Mnoge znanstvene raziskave potrjujejo, da telesna aktivnost zmanjšanje tveganje za razvoj raka s preprečevanjem škodljivih učinkov vnetja. Znižuje vrednosti inzulina in vnetnega hormona leptina ter drugih mediatorjev vnetja povezanih z debelostjo, zvišuje ravni protivnetnega adiponektina, prav tako vpliva na raven spolnih hormonov, izboljšujejo imunski odziv in sestavo ter raznolikost bakterijskih vrst, ki so del črevesne bakterijske združbe. Izkazalo se je, da zmerna telesna aktivnost zmanjšuje obolevnost za rakom, medtem ko izboljšanje vnetnega stanja povezujejo s telesno aktivnostjo višje intenzivnosti. Za preprečevanje nekaterih vrst raka bodo potrebne nadaljnje preiskave o vrsti, intenzivnosti in trajanju telesne aktivnosti in oblikovanje natančnih priporočil za posamezne vrste raka.

Namen članka je predstaviti študije, ki telesno aktivnost povezujejo z manjšim tveganjem  za rakom, posebno pozornost pa smo namenili skeletno mišičnim miokinom ter drugim mehanizmom, ki so povezni s telesno aktivnostjo. 

Zaključek: Zaščitni učinek zmerne do intenzivne telesne aktivnosti pri nastanku raka debelega črevesa in dojke je prepričljiv. Prav tako so opazni pozitivni učinki telesne aktivnosti v preventivi pred drugimi raki. 

Ključne besede: Telesna aktivnost, protivnetni miokini, rak, vnetni citokini.

 

Published
2021-02-15
How to Cite
Jurdana, M. (2021). Do skeletal muscle myokines during physical activity reduce cancer risk? Possible biological mechanisms . Radiology and Oncology, 55(1), 7-17. Retrieved from https://radioloncol.com/index.php/ro/article/view/3509
Section
Review